Tuesday, December 11, 2007

Indian army

The History of the Indian subcontinent is long, brimming with lessons for the diligent. Sifting through myth and legend, a military mind may note:
The unending demonstration of a dynasty's rise in the ability to govern, followed by degeneracy and decline.
The inability (or reluctance) to convert excellent theoretical knowledge into usable military technology.
Insularity from new means and methods of defence from abroad, while achieving great things in other spheres.
The Indus Valley civilization, it transpires from the main archaeological findings, boasted of civic amenities and social norms of a high order, and an enviable agricultural system. Yet that civilization huddled into isolated fortress communities, and that spelt its doom at the hands of Trans-Caucasian Aryan invaders. Out for conquest and plunder, the latter forced the north-western passages to fall upon a land which, to them, seemed to flow with milk and honey.
This mixed grouping kept expanding into a near military vacuum, in pastoral serenity. As millennia rolled by, the savage lust and hunger ebbed, replaced by an ordered, stratified society of great orthodoxy. Its societal norms found an ethos in the workplace, the system of rights and privileges, and service under the flag.
By the tenth century BC, Army organization correlated with societal norms. Command, for better or worse, was vested in the temporal head - the king - no matter whether he was good at it. The division of the field army into four arms - the Chaturangbalas- was a superb innovation. Horse-drawn war chariots preceded war elephants, mounted soldiers, and foot soldiers. The chariot and the elephant mattered more, apparently because they provided stable weapon handling platforms. The stirrup had yet to be discovered. The moment the toe and later the full stirrup came in vogue, the chariot became merely ceremonial. It was the foot soldier that marched to war and took the brunt of attrition on his broad shoulders - the 'Poor Bloody Infantry'.
The horse-mounted element was comparable to the latter-day dragoons, who rode to the battlefield but dismounted to fight.
Under good centralized leadership and uniform training standards, Indian field forces excelled. Under successive Mauryan kings there was no chance for a full-scale heartland invasion for a raider. Alexander the Great bit into the north-west periphery, veered north, and departed the scene. By 262 BC, relying on fast-moving cavalry for long marches, Emperor Ashok had unified two-thirds of the subcontinental landmass.
Under the Guptas again, Central Asian invaders like the Huns, who in their day razed and plundered a major portion of the known civilized world, were to stand checked as late as the sixth century AD. But time was marching on. Once again, a myopic civilization allowed its societal norms to pervade its military thinking, code, and even conduct in the field. The military, after all, Mirrors the society it serves; but history would have turned out differently, had the Army of those times been shielded from too much of this pious tenor. No deceit, sleight of hand or deception was allowed under strict rules of engagement, no flanking or attacks in the rear. Against a determined enemy, Prithvi Raj Chauhan scored the first time, defeating Mohammed Ghori at Tarain (1191 AD, 135 kilometers north of Delhi. Returning next year, the wily Ghori had no qualms over exploiting Chauhan's rigid battlefield code. If all is fair in love and war, Ghori richly deserved his victory.
The Hindu Age died out because of defective employment of assets and the curious habit of allowing an invader a free run. No attrition battles were waged on the enemy right from the frontiers or even during his retreat. Defensive thinking dictated policy, putting paid to prospects of victory for individual valour. Tactics were little practiced; strategies barely thought out and technologies were not imbibed.
Word had gone round, in the seventh century itself, that Hindustan was ripe for conquest, plunder and dominion. India's early history is therefore, the story of its conquest and subjugation by adventurous Arabs, Afghans, and Turks who marched into Hindustan to try their luck.
Mohamed bin Qasim, around 711 AD, was the first Arab to lead a successful reconnaissance in force into Sind. On reporting back his success, he lost his head (literally) for extraneous reasons. The Great Desert proper, however, had not yet been penetrated. It was left to later invaders to creep slowly eastward.
Between Ghori and Ghazni of Afghanistan, expeditionary looting was developed into a fine art. Desire for loot now changed into desire to rule, leading to the first Sultanate in Delhi in 1206 AD.
The Delhi Sultanate, established over time (1206-1526), by decisive campaigning brought in fresh war fighting norms, in which victory was the main objective unfettered by any heroic code. Firearms were introduced in the early fourteenth century, with pride of place going to fast moving cavalry released from a defending role in the battlefield. The pivot was still provided by a large group of war elephants and infantry.
The Mughal conquest of India is an object lesson in the superiority of technology and tactics over mere numbers. In 1526, a small army under Babur, of the house of Taimur in Central Asia sailed southward through Afghanistan and on to Hindustan. The small force, served by an artillery line protected by infantry, with free ranging cavalry under decentralized command, defeated a much larger force of Lodhi's sultanate. The kill power of the artillery combined with mobile multi-directional attacks, brought victory to Babur.
In the Mughals' military scheme of things, cavalry and artillery got the pride of place followed by the infantry wielding muskets and bows. Logistical trains consisting of carts drawn by camels, oxen and even donkeys were streamlined such that a field army was ensured freedom of action. Elephants, again, were used at the firm base, or as 'command vehicles'.
The mansabdari system of obtaining a large army for campaigns, with minimal expenditure being incurred by the central authority, was refined and reintroduced under the Mughals. The
Delhi Sultans had coined this name for a system long prevalent in the subcontinent. The military peerage, the only aristocracy, were graded according to mansab (or military rank). Princely state contributions flowed in according to the mansab grade, commencing at upkeep and command of 10 to 40,000 troops for blood relatives. Inevitably, such a system bred a wide variation in training standards, loyalty, and morale, and uneven leadership calibre of the mansabdar. Nevertheless, for internal empire building, and keeping outlying principalities in line, this system worked.
But the later Mughals sold their inheritance over a period of time to that canny, British trading concern, the East India Company, also known as John Company.
Even under Aurangzeb the mansabdari system was fully stretched by an outstanding leader and military genius - the Maratha chieftain, Chhatrapati Shivaji. He had thoroughly studied, the strengths of the Mughals as well as their weaknesses, and tempered his diplomacy, military doctrine, organization and tactics to capitalize on the latter.
The rugged terrain of the Western Ghats, where he operated, could be counted on to slow down large conventional columns. His cavalry, swift and decisive in battle, had great stamina, dedication and skill. It used the raid, hit and run tactics, hounding and harrying but never offering setpiece battle. Shivaji's defensive pivots were his famous hill-top forts, eminently suited for defence against anything but a long investment siege. A commander of incomparable pluck and acumen, he exploited every facet of the military art including deception, to appear where he was least expected and in sufficient strength to carry the day. He was ably assisted by such renowned captains of war as Tanaji, at whose death in battle at Singarh fort he uttered the immortal words, Sinh gele garh ale (The lion is gone, the fort is ours).

British Era
The Royal directive and Charter of the Honourable East India Company was, ostensibly, to trade with India. Trading interests needed to be protected, so the Company formed protection forces in each of its Presidencies, comprising both British and indigenous troops, although leadership and key assignments were always with the British. The British Crown, saw India as a vast and unending source of fabulous treasures, and encouraged the Company to enlarge and diversify its operations while tightening its stranglehold on a tottering and decadent Mughal Empire.
When the last of the Grand Mughals, Aurangzeb, died, Great Britain had a two fold task before it. Other European interests in India, mainly the French, had to be eliminated; and the consolidated Mughal Empire, which due to indifferent leadership and intrigue was fast crumbling, had to be taken over. Ingenuity of a rare order was required for the latter task, and successive Presidents, Governors, or Governors-General of the Company proved equal to it. The capacity for intrigue and back-stabbing that they displayed had never been witnessed in India before and has never been equalled since, even in the twentieth-century corporate world.
The advantage, too, was unfairly stacked in favour of the British.
To begin with, the technology in their possession was so far ahead of native genius that there was no contest. Secondly, Britain's pre-eminence in sea power, too, put paid to any long-term and strong presence of the French or even the Portuguese. In the initial British drive for the conquest of India one only finds Hyder Ali and thereafter his son Tipu offering stout resistance. Six decades later the Army of the Khalsa would go down fighting hard, but by then the momentum of conquest was far advanced.
The British, therefore continued their empire building with unbounded energy. The three trading concessions of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal were turned into strong beach-heads. The beach-head of Bengal was extended towards Delhi and beyond, commencing with the Battle of Plassey (1757).
Plassey nevertheless was in many ways a landmark event. Political skullduggery won the day for the British, when Mir Jaffar at the last moment deserted his sovereign, the Nawab Siraj-ud-daula, to side with Robert Clive. Such warfare of betrayal was to mark many steps of the Britishers' march of conquest in India.
The final coup in the expansion of the Bengal beach-head came in the form of two winter campaigns fought against the Sikh Empire, with its capital at Lahore, in 1846 and 1849. The battles of Sobraon (on the Sutlej) and thereafter Chillianwalla were decisive in linking up the Gangetic and Indus basins.
The Sikh Empire was thereafter parcelled out, Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh - the largest portion by far - going to the Dogra king Gulab Singh.
This could not have been done, at least profitably, without employing indigenous fighting power. The main element of British power was the Indian component of its Army in India, completely dwarfing European troops in the Company's employ and the imperial British Army components. In accordance with the Company's/Crown's principles of 'abundant caution' and abundant profit':
The Army in India would need to be kept at a state of military preparedness not higher than necessary to protect the Company and the Crown's interests.
As a result, it could be inferior in terms of modern war fighting capability to the armies of Europe. Artillery and the use of explosives would be largely denied to the indigenous component. Hand-me-downs would be sent to India but not as gifts. They had to be paid for.
The Mass would be formed out of Indian manpower, controlled by British Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) with lavish logistical largesse extracted from local potentates. The Army was to be kept on a tight budget wherever possible (Note that a Company Officer in military employ was considerably underpaid as compared to the administrator and civilian staff).
Bombay : Company Troops drilling on the square
The seed that grew into the present Indian Army was sown on fertile ground. We draw our history from here because of the unbroken service of a corporate body of men who served out of many reasons, the foremost being that they knew no other profession! or would not think of another. It does not matter who we served or for what politico-military and economic reasons.
The history of this body of men is rich, profuse, and voluminous. It cannot be told with either compression or brevity without getting out of shape. All we can do is to present some of its highlights, which are:-
The beginnings from which the old Regiments of the line as well as the Logistics Corps and Services draw moral sustenance.
The greening of a resource-thin Army, and the use and performance of this Army against those of world-class powers.
In any army, Command and Staff functions are the head. Leadership and management are its nub. But in the British-lndian Army this was not realized sufficiently. The muscle and bone - the combat arms -did much better as time went by. The arterial system -the logistics back-up - was strained beyond limits especially in expeditionary warfare. And the command set-up (as opposed to calibre), always trailed behind the need of the times.
Though indigenous manpower had been hired for duties which today would be termed 'security management, the first signs of interest in augmenting military assets with local resources came in the form of he Bombay Presidency bringing in two companies of l 00 men each of Rajputs into its employ, as early as 1683.
The Bengal and Madras Presidencies followed suit in 1700, when they recruited people of Buxar and Telengana in small numbers, respectively.
Robert Clive gave the next impetus, by forming in 1756-57, during and after the Battle of Plassey, two battalions of infantry on a European pattern of organization. These had a Headquarters and 10 companies each, initially officered exclusively by Indians. Clive went a step further than just dressing them up in the entirely unsuitable colour of red (therefore Lal Paltan or Lal Kurti which translates to 'Red coats' - the same appellation given by the American Army of Independence to British troops). Clive also introduced British officers and NCOs into these units. A battalion totalled some 860 all ranks, which is fairly close to today's total of a standard infantry battalion.
The infantry thus came into being a little before cavalry. The artillery, that elusive arm which waxed and waned more with political policy than functional need, had, on the other hand, hired artillery manpower in terms of Gun Lascars' in or around 1748.
Cavalry was built up as part of an all-arms (and all-out) build-up against the redoubtable Hyder Ali. The Honourable Warren Hastings had a mounted bodyguard, first called the 'The Governors Troop of Moghuls' which later changed its name to the Governor-General's Bodyguard. This was in 1773. The next year, the Nawab of Arcot was pleased to lease four cavalry units to the Madras Presidency. Today, the former is the President's Bodyguard, the seniormost Unit of the Indian Army, followed very closely by the 16th cavalry (1776), a direct descendant of Arcot's cavalry units.
The Corps of Sappers and Miners (now the Engineers, came along in 1780 in small numbers. Amongst the logistics services, the Commissariat (Quartermaster Branch) blossomed separately in all the three Presidencies in 1760, to cater for the needs of European as well as Indian troops. Indigenous physicians were hired in 1764 to give medical cover to Indian troops. Basic comforts having been looked into, it was also time to set up a body to procure and stock materials of war. Three Boards of Ordnance grew up in their own right in 1775. To look after the growing number of pack animals, veterinarians were inducted in 1779.
In the process, each of the three Presidencies was building up its own infrastructure, thus often needlessly triplicating effort and expense.

Command, Staff and Organization
In the beginning, local military command was vested in the body of the President himself. At no stage thereafter was military command to reach beyond that of a unified theatre in modern parlance.
By 1748, a Commander-in-Chief was given to the Governors for coordination of military activities. Major Stringer Lawrence, assisted by a Commander Royal Artillery, filled this post with great verve. This was the first (of many) attempts to integrate the military assets of the three Presidencies.
When Warren Hastings as Governor-General got his resplendent bodyguard, he also deserved it. A regulating act that year gave him authority over Madras and Bombay in peace as well as war. In 1784-85 full military
powers were retained by the Board of Control (Directors), which meant the British Government, including the power to appoint the Commander-in-Chief. For the Governor-General, a formal Army Headquarters was created with the Commander-in-Chief as head, two Principal Staff Officers being assigned to assist him, namely the Quartermaster General and the Adjutant General. At this point in time (1790), the total strength of the British-Indian Army was 90,000.
A Military Department was created in 1786, the forerunner to the Ministry of Defence. By 1834, a military member became an advisor to the Governor-General in Council. His nearest equivalent today would be the Raksha Mantri (Minister of Defence).

After the Great Bengal Army Insurrection, i.e. our First War of Independence in 1857, Her Majesty, Queen Victoria was no longer amused with the Company's loss of control, and India came directly under the Crown along with her Army. In the interim and after, a number of commissions and committees recommended changes and reforms, of which the Peel (1858) and the Eden (1879) commissions are worthy of note. The latter suggested immediate amalgamation of all Presidency Armies.
In 1895, the Army was thoroughly reorganized, burying the Presidency Armies at long last except for traditions that lingered. In line with contemporary military thinking, four regional commands were created, each under a Lieutenant General: Punjab-West of the Yamuna river, commanding the Frontier Force as well; a truncated Bengal command; Madras (with Burma); and Bombay with Sind, Quetta and an extension in Aden.
The Frontier Force and the general North-Western orientation of the Punjab and Bombay Commands was a fallout of European imperial rivalry. As early as 1840, Britain was firmly resolved to check the expansion of Imperial Russia into South-Central Asia.
In 1902-03 Kitchener commenced streamlining every inch of the system, which finally resulted in the reforms of 1908-09. He had also managed to shake off the Military Member interposed between the Commander-in-Chief and the Political Executive on the ground of unity of advice and therefore unity of purpose. What emerged from this decade-long turmoil was an expanded Army Headquarters, with a dedicated General Staff Branch and a Director-General Ordnance Branch being added to the existing Adjutant General and Quartermaster General Branches. Two territorial commands were created - the Northern and Southern, and the Field Army was subdivided into a Field Force and Internal Security Troops totalling 152,000 (nine Divisions and eight Cavalry brigades) and 82,000 respectively.
Immediately after the First World War, a Military Council was formed, with the Secretary of Army Department and the Financial Adviser as members. Once again, four regional Commands were set up with the Field Force getting an additional element - that of covering troops for the North-West Frontier.
The Command system served for both empire building and external imperial policing (Egypt, Burma, China, Mesopotamia). In protracted expeditionary wars it had a tendency to fray, but that was more due to flaws in logistics and, administrative practices.

The Tradition of Arms
Tradition fights. The Indian Army Sepoy (from the Hindustani word sipahi) and now Jawan (young man) or Sawar (rider) and his leaders formed a cohesive collective. They lived to serve the Unit, they were willing to die for it. Nothing must happen which would tarnish its honour, its izzat. The word in Urdu is a distillation hard to explain, encapsulating in itself the code of ethics given by Dharma (faith) and Namak (literally, salt). Unflinching loyalty was to a concept and not to a transient personality or cause. Always and everywhere, the Unit came first. Everything followed from it - the Regiment, the Flag, and the Country. This was the greatest battle-winning factor bequeathed by history to the Indian Army. The men were there, ready and willing to serve a flag, with honour, glory and mutual respect. Quick to appreciate these traits, successive British governments brought in more regional groupings into the Army. A fierce undying loyalty to the Unit was evinced by the British Officer Corps, and the Indian junior leaders and men reciprocated it. The greatest ambition of a British Officer was to command his Regiment.
A 'Regiment' in some armies merely means a robotic military formation the size of a brigade. No sense of the past attaches to the word. In the Indian Army, the word can mean either of two things - battalion-sized units of arms like the Armoured Corps, Artillery, Engineers, and Signals, or a particular combination of Infantry battalions. The Artillery employs the term more comprehensively and calls the complete Artillery mass in the order of battle as the Regiment of Artillery. Others stick to Corps and even groups.
To begin with, the Presidencies recruited their soldiers from their increasing territorial holdings. By 1802, however, recruitment by class or ethnic lines had begun. The British penchant for recruitment in terms of 'martial and non-martial' classes is difficult to explain, but this legacy persisted for sometime even after independence, to be finally buried in the cauldron of 1962.
Certainly, there were some outlying 'tribes" who were not considered for regular employment mainly on the score that they did not take well to rigid military discipline. These bodies were converted into irregular local levies, scouts, and frontier corps and did better in their frontier habitats.

Indian cavaliers had the sweep of a whole subcontinent before them like their equivalents - the Cossacks of Russia or the Light Dragoons of the United States. This arm came up through a mixture of raising methods: directly recruited cavaliers were grouped into 'regular' units; yeomen of means who bought themselves in with mounts and essentials, formed Irregular units, under the silladar system. Very 'irregular' Cavalry raised by gentlemen of fortune and in the employ of local powers were also welcomed to join the growing Cavalry arm.
Local state forces which had demonstrated their prowess on the battlefield were also invited to join the Britishers. Among these were the Arcot Cavalry and some from Hyderabad; Maratha Cavalry raider forces (including the highly irregular Risalas of Gardner and Skinner). The last to join the irregulars were of the Army of the Khalsa, Hodsons Horse being the best 'known among them. This formidable Cavalry arm, largely named after the Presidencies, e.g., the Bengal Cavalry, caught the romance of those times. Units were given to calling themselves 'Horse', 'Cavalry', 'Light Cavalry' or 'Lancers'. Some time after independence, the equine connotation died out and newly raised regiments now call themselves 'Armoured Regiments:

The Gunners
British policy was clear in the matter of handling of artillery by Indian troops. Guns, the main firepower component of a field army, were to be shielded from them. In the waxing and waning of Indian-served artillery, the start was auspicious. Thereafter, by the beginning of the nineteenth century there was much 'retrenchment'. A few mountain battery trains flourished and kept the Indian component alive as part of the Royal artillery. Recently, it has been established that 8 Company Bombay Artillery survived axing and is now 5 (Bombay) Mountain Battery. It was raised on 28 September 182 7, which is now celebrated as the Raising Day of the Regiment of Artillery.
Legends abound about the screwgun-equipped Mountain Batteries of Derajat, Bengal, and Hazara serving in the North West frontier. No flag or pennant is needed by the Artillery as colours for rallying. Without fail, gunners rallied round their guns and defended them to the last.
It was in January 1935 that 'A' Field Brigade (actually a four-battery 'regiment') was raised with Indian troops. As late as that, it was horse-drawn artillery on the lines of the older Royal Horsed Artillery. The tradition of a quick gallop into battle and on deployment serving the gun to the end was strongly established right from the beginning.

The Sappers and Miners
The need for accurate survey arose before combat engineering. Vast holdings had to be carefully delineated and mapped out, to plan the correct form of commercial extraction. By 1780, serious attention began to be given to the art of sapping and mining.
Forts abound in the subcontinent, and to the forts the main defences withdrew for a protracted stand. On being invested, the siege (heavy) artillery including trench mortars or bombards went at it. The real work, not for the faint-hearted, went to the sappers who had to do the 'sapping' or mining. Sapping is the technique of accurately digging trenches, usually covered or zigzag, to cover one's approach to the point of assault.
Mining involves boring through and placing very large demolition charges for making a breach in the walls of the fort and/or placing the charges under key areas in the fort. The sapping technique has been used to great advantage on modern battlefields as well,
Dien Bien Phu (March-April 1954) and Khe-San (1967-68) in Vietnam being notable examples. Of necessity, a sapper must be tough, tenacious, unflappable, and skilled at his job.
They have emerged on today's battlefield as the 'Engineers'. In India, the Engineers were spawned in three groups - the Madras Sappers followed by the Bengal Sappers and finally the Bombay Sappers. They were formed into field companies (a sub-unit organization that exists to this day) grouped into regiments. Till 1911, the Sappers also had the onerous charge of passing battlefield messages. Between 1911 and 1920, they handed this burgeoning task to a batch of their own kinsmen who then formed the Corps of Signals.

The Corps and Services
Logistics back-up to the fighting forces has specialized over the decades and centuries, splitting when expedient to form specialist corps, and merging where necessary. The Supply and Transport departments merged to form the Royal Indian Army Service Corps in 1884; Remount and Veterinary Services merged to form the Remount and Veterinary Corps. The Boards of Ordnance merged and formed the Indian Army Ordnance Corps, out of which emerged the Corps of Indian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers in 1943.

Resistance to providing Indian leadership for the Indian Army persisted for quite a while. Roberts, a long-standing Commander-in-Chief of the Army was of the view that no Indian officer could have serving under him a British officer, or even a British NCO. The most an Indian could aspire for was an Indian commission, with 'Subedar Major' being the highest rank. The first major change came in l919-20, in response to the then Indian political leadership's strident demands for 'Indianization' of the Army, in that ten vacancies were reserved for suitable' Indians at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst.
Indian political demands also impelled the British to set up the Indian Military Academy (IMA) at Debra Dun on 1 October 1932. The training was for a period of two and a half years. The IMA was formally inaugurated by the Commander-in-Chief in India, FM Sir Philip Chetwode, on 10 December 1932. In his inaugural address to the trainees, he enunciated three principles which were to guide the future officers of the Indian Army:
The safety, honour, and welfare of your country comes first, always and everytime.
The honour, welfare and comfort of the men you command come next.
Your own ease, comfort and safety come last, always and everytime.
The first batch of Gentleman Cadets who passed out of the IMA were commissioned in December 1934. This batch was to produce India's first Field Marshal, SAM Manekshaw MC of the 8th Gorkha Rifles. On independence, Indian officers, junior in service and experience to their British mentors (the highest rank holders were Brigadiers Cariappa and Thimayya), were able to step into their elevated ranks and responsibilities, with confidence.

The First World War
The Indian Army combat arms strength at the beginning of the First World War was 155,423. It ended the war with 573,484, accepting, like all major combatant nations, an enormous percentage of casualties. It served in some of the most horrendous theatres of war under senior military leadership of questionable competence, with singular resolve and devotion to duty.
Nk Darwan Singh (Garhwal Rifles) leads round a traverse at the point of the bayonet and was awarded the VC : France First World War
Like all other great cavalries, the Indian horsed Cavalry units fought in the quagmires and unending obstacle systems of the Western Front'. Serving as Infantry, they took appalling casualties. Their last hurrah was in Palestine, where in free country, led by the brilliant Allenby, they drove the Turks before them from the Sinai to Lebanon and into Syria, demonstrating once again, their unyielding spirit.
Imperial Germany did complain about the use of 'colonial troops' in the main European theatre. Indian troops were proving to be dogged and unrelenting in resistance. Higher command failed them in the tough conditions of Mons and Flanders, and the Dardanelles. In Mesopotamia, the logistic system repeatedly failed and abysmal reinforcement methods became glaring. Yet through it all, the Indian Army put on a sterling performance, and the many theatre and battle honours that adorn the 'colours' of its regiments bear proud witness to this.

The Second World War
When the Second World War broke out, not a single unit of the Indian Army was mechanized to respectable standards. Motorization was selective, and scales of weaponry extremely sparse. But the number of men that India gave to the Allied Cause has never been equalled since. In 1939, the Army had 189,000 in its ranks -rising to 2,644,323 at peak strength in 1945.
In the Western Desert, in Eritrea and Italy, Indian Divisions engaged the Germans and-ltalians. The 4th, 5th, and 8th Divisions distinguished themselves in a series of hard-fought campaigns. A time came when the British 8th Army depended on the 4th Division to crack up Axis formations in their long (and final) retreat. At Cassino, the best that the German Parachute Regiment had were slowly reduced by equally motivated Indian troops of all shades. German breakthroughs in the Desert saw Indian Gunners standing to their guns, despite being cut off, and fighting heroically. The 3rd (Indian) Motor Brigade badgered the Africa Corps using trucks and machine guns.
In Malaya, Singapore, and Burma the Indian Army initially gave ground to what at first seemed an unstoppable Imperial Japanese drive through South-East Asia to the very gates of India. None was there to stop them - not the Chinese, nor the Americans, nor British or Indian Army formations. 17 Indian Division's agonizing withdrawal in 1942, over vast stretches in Burma, was the longest in British military history. The Division was to subsequently extract terrible retribution from the Japanese Army when Field Marshal 'Bill' Slim's 14th Army went on the counter-offensive, sweeping the Japanese out of Burma and South-East Asia. Out of one million men of the Allied Armies in South-East Asia, 700,000 were Indians.
It was the Indian Army units, who in the words of 'Bill' Slim, were the 'best in the world' that merited recognition as superb fighting machines. Identical sentiments were echoed by Bernard Montgomery (Monty) in the West; Rommel, the 'Desert Fox', had the 'healthiest regard' for the Indians.
The war in Burma sprouted some of our outstanding middle-level and junior leaders such as Brigadier KS Thimayya DSO, Major Srikant Korla DSO, MC, Major NC Rawlley MC and Major Rajwade, to name but a few. The Victoria Cross (VC) - the first award of it's kind to an Indian Commissioned Officer was awarded to Second Lieutenant Premindra Singh Bhagat of the Bombay Sappers for an act of unparalleled bravery and inspiring leadership, on the night of 31 January/1 February 1941, when commanding a detachment of 21 Field company of the Bombay Sappers on the road to Gondar, in Abyssinia.
"Ayo Gorkhali" (The Gorkhas have come)
An Officer & a Gentleman
As an officer in the Indian Army, you'll be heir to a glorious heritage. To timeless traditions. Blended perfectly with the latest in hi-technology, training techniques and strategic doctrines. You'll be part of one of the world's finest armies. Trained not just to be an officer. But a soldier's soldier.
Where Growth is a way of Life
The Army is one place where professional growth takes place at every step. Nowhere else will you get such phenomenal opportunities to constantly upgrade your skills.NDA cadets are awarded Bachelor's degrees in Arts, Science or Computer Science on completion of training. If you join the technical stream, you will acquire Graduate and Post-Graduate degrees in Engineering. At some of the finest institutes of technology.
Selection for the prestigious Defence Services Staff College course results in the award of an M Sc. in Defence and Strategic Studies. What's more, you can also get study leave for two years to further upgrade your professional skills.
These growth opportunities are virtually unlimited. You could even get into Research and Development, if you have the aptitude. From Engineering to Medicine, From administration to Strategy, From Armament Technology to Management, You name it, We have it. SO, HOW DO YOU GET IN ? You have several options. You can join right after school or after completing your graduation. For details of the recruitment process, there's a chart for your reference.

Permanent Commission
A Permanent Commission means a career in the Army till you retire. For a Permanent commission you have to join the National Defence Academy or the Indian Military Academy.
The National Defence Academy, Pune.Every year, thousands of youngsters apply for NDA. Only a handful get through. You can take the NDA entrance exam right after class Xl. Clear the written exam. Sail through a 5-day SSB interview. Take your medical. And you're in NDA. Three years in NDA and you will be a different person altogether.
Simply because the NDA is a place like no other. Apart from the finest infrastructure for professional training, you'll find phenomenal opportunities to develop your personality and cultivate new interests.
At NDA, there are 31 extra-curricular activities to choose from. You have aero-modeling, golf, gliding, sailing, wind surfing, astronomy, photography... and many more. More on NDA.
Indian Military Academy, Dehradun.The Indian Military Academy is yet another cradle of leadership. To get into IMA, you have to pass the Combined Defence Services exam. You can take this exam in your final year in college. There are two main entry schemes --- the Graduate Direct Entry Scheme and the Technical Graduates Entry Scheme. The duration of training is one year in the case of Technical Graduates Entry Scheme and NDA Gentleman cadets. For the Direct Entry Scheme, it's one and a half years.
The IMA trains you to lead from the front. You are trained in all aspects of combat and tactics using computers and other modern training tools. The IMA has excellent facilities for all-round development. You can go for adventure sports like River rafting, Para jumping, Rock climbing, Trekking and Mountaineering.
From the IMA, you're commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Indian Army. To go out into the world and live up to the IMA motto -- "Valour & Wisdom". More on IMA

Short Service Commission
You also have the option of joining the Army and serving as a Commissioned officer for 5 years.
At the end of this period you have two options. Either to volunteer for a Permanent Commission or opt out. Those not selected for Permanent Commission have the option of a 9-years extension. They can resign at any time during this period.
A Short Service Commission empowers you with analytical thinking, planning skills, administrative and organizational abilities. Qualities that will make you an invaluable asset for any organization that you join after the Army.
Officers Training Academy, Chennai.Once selected for Short Service Commission, you go to the Officers Training Academy at Chennai. The selection process is very simple. A written exam followed by the SSB interview and the medicals. The selection procedure for Technical (Engineering) graduates is slightly different. After the initial screening of applications by Army Headquarters, the short-listed candidates take the SSB interview.SSB qualified candidates undergo a medical examination. The duration of training is approximately 9 months. OTA trains you to be a first-class officer, provides you with opportunities to broaden your perspective and widen your horizons. Whether it's Skeet-shooting, Golf, Riding or Angling... at OTA you can do it all.
Special Scheme for Women (Officers)The Indian Army also has women officers. You can take up the challenge of Short Service Commission and prove to the world that when it comes to courage and leadership, you're second to none.
Women officers receive training at OTA, Chennai. You should be a Graduate/Post-Graduate to apply. After the written exam, there is the SSB interview . And finally, the medical examination. More on OTA

A Great Life & a Great Life-Style
Apart from attractive pay and perks, we offer what no other profession can. A great life-style. The Army has some of the finest clubs, hospitals, golf courses and schools in the country. And the best part is that as an Army Officer, you don't have to stand in a Q to get in. If you're into adventure and sports, there's no place like the Army. Polo, Mountaineering, River rafting, Gliding, Trekking, Sky-diving, Parasailing, Shooting, Skiing, and many more. In which other career would you have access to all this right from day one ? You'll be leading a healthy life in a healthy environment
As you grow up and raise a family, your children can study in Army schools, which are amongst the finest in the country. You and your family will get a chance to see the country and possibly even abroad, meet and interact with the brightest minds from different fields.
Add to this, facilities like accommodation, medical for self and your family, canteen, Group Housing Schemes, soft loans for buying scooter or a car or for constructing a house and Group insurance cover. And you'll agree that the Army takes care of you and your family like no other organization.

Modes of Entry : Officers
Type of Entry
Month of Commence- ment of Course Each year
Age at the time of joining
Educational Qualification
Mode of Selection
How to apply
1. National Defence Academy (NDA)
NDA Entry
Jan and July
161/2-19 yrs
12th class of 10+2 system of education or equivalent
NDA Exam by UPSC and SSB interview
Apply in response to Advertisement during Mar & Oct

2.Indian Military Academy (IMA).
(a) Direct Entry
Jan & July
19 -24 yrs
Degree or equivalent at the time of joining the course
Combined Defence Services Exam (CDSE) conducted by UPSC and SSB interview
Apply in response to advertisement during Apr & Oct.
(b) Engineering Graduate
Jan and Jul
20 - 27 yrs
Engineering degree in notified discipline
Direct SSB interview
Apply to Addl Dte Gen of Recruiting (TGC Entry) Army HQs West Block III, R K Puram, New Delhi- 110066 in response to Advertisement during Apr and Oct.
(c) University Entry Scheme
19-25 yrs (Final Year).
18-24 yrs (Pre Final Year).
Final and pre-final year students of Engineering Degree Course
Campus interview and SSB interview
Apply in response to advertisement in May
(d) 10+2 Technical Entry Scheme
Jan and July
16 1/2- 19 1/2 Yrs
10 + 2 PCM (70% aggregate to apply)
Direct SSB interview
Apply in response to advertisement in Jan & July every year.
3.Officers Training Academy (OTA).
(a) Short Service Commission (Non- Technical)
Apr and Oct/Nov
19-25 yrs
Degree or equivalent at the time of joining the course
CDSE conducted by UPSC and SSB interview
Apply in response to advertisement during Apr & Oct.
(b) Short Service commission (Technical)
Apr and Oct
20-27 yrs
Engineering degree in notified discipline
direct SSB interview
Apply in response to advertisement during Apr & Oct.
(c) Short Service Commission (NCC special Entry Scheme)
Apr and Oct
19-25 yrs
Graduate with 50% aggregate marks, two years service in NCC Senior Div Army with minimum 'B' Grade in 'C' Certificate Exam.
Direct SSB interview.
Apply in response to advertisement in Jun & Dec through NCC Directorate.
(d) Women special entry scheme (Officers) Technical / Non Technical / Specialist
Apr and Oct
Technical/Non Technical 19-25 Yrs
Specialist 21-27 Yrs
BE/B Tech/B Sc/ BA/B Com/ BBA / BCA
Post- Graduate
Direct SSB interview

Apply in response to advertisement in Feb / Mar.
(e) JAG
21-27 Yrs
Graduate with LLB / LLM with 50% marks. Registered with Bar Council of India
Direct SSB interview
Apply in response to advertisement in Feb / Mar.

Recruitment of other Ranks
INDIAN ARMY A UNIQUE AND DIGNIFIED CAREERRecruitment in the Army is broad based. Every male citizen, irrespective of caste, class, religion and domicile, is eligible for recruitment in the Army, provided he meets the laid down age, educational, physical and medical standards.
Recruitment in the Army is carried out through out the year through an open rally system. The recruitment programme is published in local newspaper, two weeks prior to the conduct of the rally by the concerned ZROs. The process of screening and enrolment is as follows :-
(a) Checking of documents.(b) Physical measurements.(c) Physical fitness test.(d) Medical examination.(e) Written examination.(f) Preparation of merit list.(g) Enrolment and Despatch of selected candidates in order of merit to Centres.
Bring following original documents along with three photostat copies of each, duly attested:-- X th Class date of birth certificate.- X th/XII th Class marks sheet.- Character Certificate to be signed by village Sarpanch (not more than six months old).- Domicile Certificate.- Caste Certificate.- Dependent Certificate ( in case of son of Ex-servicemen/ War Widow/Widow ) signed by record office.- Certificate of Outstanding sportsmen.- NCC Certificate (A/B/C Certificate).

Categories of Entry & their Eligibility Conditions
SoldierGeneral Duty
SSLC/ Matric with 45% marks in aggregate, and 32% in each subject. No % reqd if higher qualification then only pass in Matric.
17½-21 Years
Soldier Technical
10+2/ Intermediate exam passed in Science with Physics, Chemistry, Maths and English. No weightage for higher qualification.
17½-23 Years
Soldier Clerk / Store Keeper Technical
10+2/Intermediate exam pass in any stream (Arts, Commerce, Science) with 50% marks in aggregate and min 40% in each subject. Weightage for higher qualification.
17½-23 Years
Soldier Nursing Assistant
10+2/ Intermediate exam pass in science with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English with min 50% marks in aggregate and min 40% in each subject. No Weightage for higher qualification.
17½-23 Years
Soldier Tradesman
Non Matric
17½-23 Years
Soldier ( GD) Non Matric
Non Matric
17½-21 Years
Surveyor Auto Carto

BA/BSc with Maths having passed Matric & 10+2 with Maths & Science
20-25 years
Havildar Education
Graduate with B Ed/Post Graduate with B Ed
20-25 years
JCO (Religious Teacher)
Graduate in any discipline.In addition, qualification in his own religious denomination
27-34 years
JCO (Catering)
10+2 , Diploma/Certificate Course of a duration of one year or more in Cookery/ Hotel Management and Catering Tech recognized by AICTE
21-27 years
Note: Dispensation in education for enrolment as Sol (GD) is permissible to some Selected States/Region/Class and Community.

Dispensation in Educational Qualification
For Soldier (GD) Category, the following have been granted dispensation:-
(a) Class X Simple Pass. (i) J&K State. Jammu, Kathua and Udhampur Distts of J&K.
(ii) Uttaranchal State. Batwari Tehsil of Uttarkashi Distt, Okhimath Tehsil of Rudraprayag Distt and Joshimath Tehsils of Chamoli Distt.(iii) Rajasthan State. Jaisalmer and Barmer Distts and Shergarh, Osian and Phalaudi Tehsils of Jodhpur Distt.(iv) Gujarat State. Ropar and Lakhpat Tehsils of Kutch Distt.(v) Punjab State. Candidates from Punjab who are domiciled with in the aerial distance of 20 Kms from the (IB) International Border.(vi) Class/Community. (aa) Kaim-Khanis from Rajasthan. (ab) Rawat from Ajmer, Rajasmad, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Chittoor Distts from Rajasthan. (ac) Mahars from Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. (ad) Sikh (M&R). (b) To Class VIII. (i) J&K State. Less Jammu, Udhampur and Kathua Distt and Ladakh Region. (ii) Uttaranchal State. Berinag, Didihat, Dharchula and Munsiari Tehsils of Pithoragarh Distt. (iii) Sikkim State. (iv) Andaman & Nicobar Group of Islands. (v) Lakshadweep. Minicoy Group of Islands. (vi) NE States. All pers incl tribals except Arunachal Pradesh (incl tribals). (vii) Himichal Pradesh. Lahaul, Spiti and Kinnaur Distts. (viii) Class/Community. Gorkhas (Nepalese and Indian) and Adivasis. (c) To Class V. (i) J&K State. Ladakh region. (ii) Arunachal Pradesh. incl tribals.
Physical Standards
The minimum physical standards for the various regions are :-
Western Himalayan Region
J&K, HP, Punjab Hills (Area South & West of the Inter state Border between HP & Punjab and North and East of road of Mukerian, Hoshiarpur, Garh shankar, Ropar ) Garhwal & Kumaon ( Uttranchal).
Eastern Himalayan Region
Sikkim, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya , Assam , and Hill Region of West Bengal ( Darjeeling and Kalimpong Districts).
Western Plains Region
Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh , Delhi , Rajasthan and Western UP ( Meerut and Agra Division).
Eastern Plains Region
Eastern UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand and Orissa.
Central Region
Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Dadar-Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu.

Southern Region
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa And Pondicherry
Note :- * Only for Sol Tech/NA.
Special Physical Standards
Minimum physical standards as given below will apply to the following with effect from 01 Aug 2004 :-
Region- States - category
Height (Cms)
Weight (kgs)
Chest (Cms)
Gorkhas both Nepalese and Indians
Candidates from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep Group including Minicoy :-
Tribals of recognized tribal areas
Brigade of the Guards
Med Arty
Corps of Military Police
*Clerks GD/SKT
Soldier Tradesmen
Minimum physical standards of the regions given at para 1 above, minus 1 Cm Chest and 2 Kgs Weight.
For Central Categories(JCO RT/JCO Catering/Survy auto Carto/ Hav Edn)
155 Cms
77 Cms
50 Kgs.
JCO Catering/ Surveyor Auto/ Catographer / Hav Edn
As applicable to Sol GD for various regions.

Dispensation of Physical Standards
(a) Sons of Servicemen, Ex-Servicemen, War Widow and Widow of Ex-Servicemen
(b) Adopted Son/Son-in- law of a War Widow, If she has no son
(c) Outstanding Sportsmen (national/State and those who represented District in state, College in University, Board Championship and earned 1st/2nd position)
(d) For candidates belong to chronically poor areas and those desirous of joining overage categories who are from families engaged in traditional profession. This relaxation may be given at the discretion of BROs, ZROs or Centre Commandants.
Note :- An eligible candidate can be granted prescribed relaxations in all three measurements i.e. Height, Chest, Weight. However, he cannot claim dispensations of more than one category, i.e. parental/ sportsmen.

Medical Standards
A candidate should have robust physique and good mental health. Chest should be well developed having minimum 5 Cms expansion. Should have normal hearing with each ear and good binocular vision in both eyes. He should be able to read 6/6 in distant vision chart with each eye. Colour vision should be CP-III. Should recognize red and green colours. Should have sufficient number of natural healthy gum and teeth i.e. minimum 14 dental points. Should not have disease like deformity of bones, hydrocele and varicocle or piles.
Physical Fitness Tests(PFT)
To determine the Physical Fitness, the following tests carrying 100 marks are held :-
(a) 1 Mile Run(b) Pull Ups(c) Balance(d) 9 Feet Ditch
Marking system is as follows :-
(a) 1 MILE RUN (i) 5.40 Mins and below 60 Mks (ii) 5.41 Mins to 5.50 48 Mks (iii) 5.51 Mins to 6 .05 36 Mks (iv) 6.06 Mins to 6.20 24 Mks
(i) 10 and above 40 Mks (ii) 9 33 Mks (iii) 8 27 Mks (iv) 7 21 Mks (v) 6 16 Mks
(c) BALANCE Should be qualified and no marks are awarded.
(d) 9 Feet Ditch Should be qualified and no marks are awarded.Medical Standards :- (a) A candidate should have robust physique and good mental health. (b) Chest should be well developed having minimum 5 Cms expension. (c) Should have normal hearing with each ear and good binocular vision in both eyes. He should be able to read 6/6 in distance vision chart with each eye. Colour vision should be CP-III. (d) Should have sufficient number of natural healthy gum and teeth i.e. minimum 14 dental points. (e) Should not have diseases like deformity of bones, hydrocele and varicocle or piles. (f) Should recognize red and green colours.

Written Examination
Common Entrance Examination (CEE) is conducted on last Sunday of each month for recruitment of Soldiers. It comprises of following two papers:-
(a) Paper -I - Compulsory for all soldier categories.(b) Paper -II - For Soldier Technical, Soldier Clk (GD/SKT) and Soldier Nursing Assistant.
Paper-l: It generally comprises of questions on IQ/Numerical ability, general knowledge and current affairs. Duration of papers is 60 minutes. Total marks 100. Pass Marks 32.
Paper II: Paper II (Sol Tech) - 50 marks. It generally comprises of Physics, Chemistry and Maths. Duration - 30minutes, Pass marks-16.
Paper II (Sol Clk/SKT) - 150 marks. It generally comprises of English (Language Proficiency) Maths & Computer Science. Duration - 30 minutes, Pass Marks-20.
Paper II (Sol Nursing Assistant) - 150 marks. It generally comprises of Chemistry, Botany & Biology, Duration - 30 minutes, Pass marks-16.
Note : In addition to paper 1, a Sol Tech, Sol Clk/Skt and Sol Nursing Assistant has to qualify in his respective paper. National Cadet (NCC) "C" Certificate holders seeking enrollment for Sol (GD) are exempted from appearing in written examination but have to fulfill other laid down criteria.

Recruitment Location ~

1. HQ Rtg office Jalandhar
Distts of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur ,Nawanshahar & Kapurthal
HQ Rtg Zone, Jalandhar Cantt - 144 005Tel : 2263633
2. BRO Amritsar
Distts of Amritsar and Gurdaspur.
Branch Recruiting Office, Amritsar Cantt- 143 001
3. BRO Ferozpur
Distts of Ferozpur, Faridkot , Bhatinda, Moga, Mansa & Muktsar.
Branch Recruiting Office, 41, Dass Road , Ferozpur Cantt-152 001
4. BRO Patiala
Distts of Patiala, Sangrur & fatehgarh Sahib.
Branch Recruiting Office, 27, The Mail, PatialaPIN -147 001
5. BRO Ludhiana
Distts of Ludhiana and Rupnagar.
Branch Recruiting Office, Ludhiana-141 001
6. BRO Jammu
Distts of Jammu , Kathua, Poonch, Udhampur Doda and Rajouri.
Branch Recruiting Office, Jammu-185 005
7. BRO Srinagar
Distts of Srinagar , Anantnag, Baramula , Leh, Pulwama, Badgam, Kupwara and kargil.
Branch Recruiting Office, Srinagar C/o 31 Sub AreaC/o 56 APO

8. HQ Rtg office Ambala
Distts of Ambala, Karnal, Kurukshetra , UT of Chandigarh, yamuna nagar and panchkula .
HQ Rtg Zone, Chandrasekhar Marg, Ambala Cantt-133 001Tel - 2645338
9. BRO Rohtak
Distts of Rohtak, Sonepat , Jhajjar and Panipat.
Tel- 241568
10. BRO Hissar
Distts of Hissar, Sirsa, Jind , Fatehabad & Kaithal
Tel - 235059
11. BRO Charkhi Dadri
Distts of Mohindergarh, Bhiwani & Rewari.
Tel: 20037
12. BRO Palampur
Distts of Chamba and Kangra.
Tel: 235526
13. BRO Hamirpur
Distts of Hamirpur, Una and Bilaspur
Tel: 224614
14. BRO Shimla
Distts of Shimla, Solan, Sirmaour & Kinnaur.
Tel: 2652804
15. BRO Mandi
Distts of Mandi, Kullu & Lahaul and Spiti sub Divn.
Tel: 222287

16. HQ Rtg office Jaipur
Distts of Jaipur, Ajmer , Nagpur , and Bhilwara .
HQ Rtg Zone, Post Box No. 35, P.O:Shasthri Nagar, Jaipur-302 016Tel :2233886
17. BRO Alwar
Distts of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dausa, Dholpur , Karauli , Tonk and Sawaimadhopur.
Branch Recruiting Office, Alwar (Raj)-301 001Tel :23700354
18. BRO Jhunjhunu
Distts of Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Churu, Hanumangarh , Bikaner and Sriganganagar.
Branch Recruiting Office, Jhunjhunu (Raj)-333 001Tel:-232350
19. BRO Jodhpur
Distts of Jodhpur , Palli, Sirohi, Jalaur, Barmer, Jaisalmer and Udaipur .
Branch Recruiting Office, Jodhpur (Raj)-342 006Tel :
20. BRO Kota
Distts of Kota , Bundi,Rajsamand, Banswara, Dungerpur, Udaipur , Chittorgarh, Baren and Jhalwar.
Branch Recruiting Office, Kota (Raj)-324 001Tel :

21. HQ Rtg office Lucknow
Distts of Lucknow , Gonda, Unnao, Bahraich, Barabanki, Kanpur Barabanki, Kanpur Nagar, Fatehpur, Hamirpur, Basti , Kanpur Dehat, Banda, Mahoba, Chitrakut, Shravasti,Balrampur and Sant Kabir Nagar.
HQ Rtg Zone, 236 Mahatma Gandhi Road , Lucknow Cantt. - 226002Tel :2483627
22. BRO Lansdowne
Distts of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehradun, Pauri Garhwal , Rudra prayag, Chamoli and Haridwar.
Branch Recruiting Office, Lansdowne (Uttranchal) - 246155Tel :262301
23. BRO Almora
Distts of Almora , Nainital, Bageshwar and Udham Singh Nagar.
Branch Recruiting Office, Almora (Uttranchal) - 263601Tel : 230005
24. BRO Meerut
Distts of Meerut , Saharanpur , Bijnaur, Muzaffarnagar, Ghaziabad , Bulandshhar,Gautam budh Nagar, Bagpat , Jyotiba Phule Nagar and Moradabad .
Branch Recruiting Office, Meerut Cantt. (UP)Tel :
25. BRO Bareilly
Distts of Bareilly , Badaun, Rampur , Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur, Hardoi, Sitapur and Lakhimpur Kheri.
Branch Recruiting Office, Fort Road Bareilly (UP) - 243001Tel :
26. BRO Agra
Distts of Agra , Mathura , Etawah, Jhansi , Jalaun, Lalitpur, Mainpuri, Farukhabad, Etah , Auriya Kannauj, Firozabad, Maha Maya Nagar and Aligarh .
Branch Recruiting Office, 65, Taj Road , Agra Cantt. (UP) - 282001Tel :
27. BRO Varanasi
Distts of Mirazapur, Varanasi , Jaunpur, Ghazipur, Azamgarh, Balia, Gorakhpur, Sant Ravi Das N agar, Mau, Maharaj Gunj, Kushi Nagar, Siddrath Nagar Sonbhadra, Chandoli and Deoria.
Branch Recruiting Office, Varanasi Cantt., - 221002Tel :2506600
28. BRO Pithoragarh
Distt of Pithoragarh and Chambhawat.
Branch Recruiting Office, Pithoragarh (Uttranchal) - 262520Tel : 225210
29. BRO Amethi
Distts of Rai Bareilly, Allahabad , Pratapgarh, Faizabad, koshambi, Ambedkar Nagar and Sultanpur.
Branch Recruiting Office, Amethi, Distt - Sultanpur - 227405Tel :222187

30. HQ Rtg Office Calcutta
Distts of 24 Parganas(South), Kolkata, Midnapur (both East and West) and Hawrah.
HQ Rtg Zone, 1 Gokhale Road, Calcutta-700 020Tel : 22226195
31. BRO Siliguri
Distts of Cooch Bihar, Jalpaiguri, Uttar Dinjapur, Dakshin Dinajpur, Malda, Darjeeling (AIAC Vacs) and State of Sikkim

B R O, Seveke Road Camp, PO :Salugara, Siliguri, Distt-Jalpaiguri, PIN-734318Tel :
32. BRO Kanchrapara
Distts of 24 Pargana(North), HooglyBurdwan, Bankura and Puralia
B R O, Kanchrapara, PO :Kampa, Distt-24 Paragnas(North)-743193 (WB)Tel :25872136
33. BRO Berhampur

Distt of Murshidabad, Burdhwan, Nadia and Birbhum

BRO Behrampore C/O BRO Kanchrapara P.O. Kampa Distt 24 Pargana West Bengal Tel : 274016

34. BRO Cuttack
Distts of Cuttack , Puri, Balazore, Mayurbhanj, Bhadrak, Jagat Singh Pur, Jajpur, Kendrapara, Khurda and Naya Garh.
Branch Recruiting Office,Cuttack-753 001Tel : 2301710
35. BRO Sambalpur
Distts of Sambalpur, Keonjhar, Sundergarh, Bolangir, Dhenkanal., bargarh, Angul, Deogarh, Jharsuguru and Sonapur.
Branch Recruiting Office, P-1951, Dhanipali, Sambalpur-768 004Tel :2520845
36. BRO Gopalpur Cantt
Distts of Kalahandi, Koraput , Ganjam, Boudh, Gajapati, malkangiri, Nowapada, Nowrangpur, kandhamal and Rayagada.
Bracnh Recruiting Office, (Ganjam), Gopalpur Cantt, Golabandha-761 052Tel :

37. BRO Katihar
Distts of Katihar, Saharsha, Bhagalpur , Munger, Madhupura, Purnia, Banka , Ararea, Kishanganj, and Supaul.
Branch Recruiting Office, Military Camp,Katihar-854 105Tel :
38. HQ Rtg Office Danpur
Distts of Patna , Bhojpur, Vaishali, Saran, Gopalganj , Buxer , Siwan, Shekhpura and lakhisarai.
HQ Rtg Zone, DanapurCantt-801 503Tel : 4272777-387
39. BRO Muzaffarpur
Distts of Muzaffarpur, Dharbanga, Madhubani, East & West Champaran , Sitamarhi, Samastipur, Sheohar, Begusarai and Khagaria.
Branch Recruiting Office, Muzaffarpur-842 001Tel : 245408
40. BRO Ranchi
Distts of Ranchi , East & West Singhbhum, Dhanbad, Hazaribagh, Giridhih, Gumla, Lohardaga, Chatra , Bokaro, Koderma, Deoghar, Dumka, Jamtada, Saraikela, Sinadega, Godda, Sahebganj and Pakur.
Branch Recruiting Office, Ranchi (Jharkhand)-834 001.Tel : 205083-4810
41. BRO Gaya
Distts of Gaya , Aurangabad , Nawada, Nalanda, Rohtas, Palamu, Garwah, Bhabua, Jahanbad, Latehar and Jumai.
Branch Recruiting Office, Paharpur Gaya-823 005Tel :422420-441

42. HQ Rtg Office Jabalpur
Distts of Jabalpur , Shahdol, Mandla, Balghat, Rewa, Satna, Narsinghpur, Seoni, Sidhi , Katni, Dindori and Umaria.
HQ Rtg Zone, T-23, Ridge Road, Jabalpur-482 001 (MP)Tel :76-762246
43. BRO Raipur
Distts of Raipur , Raigarh, Sarghuja, Rajnandgaon, Bilaspur , Bastar, Korba, Dhamtari, Durg, mahasumand, Janjgir, jaspurnagar, Kawardha and Korea.
Branch Recruiting Office, 82/109, RSU Campus, Raipur (Chattisgarh)-492 010Tel : 228155
44. BRO Gwalior
Distts of Gwalior , Bhind, Morena, Datia, Shivpuri, Guna, Tikamgarh, Chhatarpur, Damoh, Sheopur and Panna.
Branch Recruiting Office, 23 Kalpi Road , Morar, Gwalior (MP)-474 006Tel : 31-312057
45. BRO Mhow
Distts of Indore , Dewas, Jhabua, Mandsaur, Ratlar, Dhar, Ujjain , Neemuch, Shajapur, and Badwani..
Branch Recruiting Office, 4, Bakery Road , Mhow(MP)-453 441Tel : 58184
46. BRO Bhopal
Distts of Bhopal , Sehore, Raison, Saugor, Chhindwara, Betul, Hoshangabad, Vidisha , Rajgarh, Hards, Khargaon (East Nimar).
Branch Recruiting Office, Old Sectt, Bhopal-462 001Tel : 73100-540954

47. HQ Rtg Office Shillong
Distts of East & West Khasi, Garo Hills and Jaintia Hills,Morigaon, Nagaon, Ribhoi, Morigaon,nagaon and Sonipur.
HQ Rtg Zone, Shillong - 788025Tel : 224300-6932
48. BRO Jorhat
Distts of West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit, Tirap Chandllang, Lower Subansiri, Upper Subansiri, Tawang, East Kameng, West Kameng and Pupumpara.
Branch Recruiting Office, Jorhat - 785001Tel : 320140-6916
49. BRO Narangi
Distts of Barpeta, Goalpara, Kamrup, Nalbari, Kokrajhar, Dhubri, and Bongaigaon
Branch Recruiting Office, Narangi (Guwahati) - 780027C/o 101 Area Postal Unit C/o 99 APO Tel :540412-6991
50. BRO Rangapahar
Distts of Kohima, Mokochung, Phonk, Mon, Zurikebito, Wokha, Tuensang, Phek, Mon, Zunheboto, Wokha and Dimapur.
Branch Recruiting Office, Rangapahar, Dimapur, Nagaland - 797112Tel :28600-6916
51. BRO Silchar

Distts of Cachar, Karimganj, Hailakandi, North, South & West Tripura and Dhalai.

Branch Recruiting Office, Sillchar Cantt., PO Auranchal Pradesh - 788025Distt. Cachar ( Assam )Tel :21531-60978
52. BRO Aizawl
State of Mizoram
BRO Aizawl C/O 806 FPO C/O 99 APO

53. HQ Rtg Office Pune
Distts of Pune, Ahmednagar, Sholapur and Osmanabad.
HQ Rtg Zone, 3, Rajendra Singhji Road Pune-411 001Tel:6360849
54. BRO Mumbai
Distts of Mumbai, Thane, Nasik , Jalgaon , Dhule, New Mumbai, Raigad and Nandurbar.
Branch Recruiting Office, Colaba, Mumbai-400 005Tel:2153510
55. BRO Nagpur
Distts of Nagpur , Wardha, Bhandara, Akola , Amravati , Chandrapur ,Yaratmal, Gadchiroli, Gondia and Washim.
Branch Recruiting OfficeNagpur-440 001Tel:555907
56. BRO Kolhapur
Distts of Satara, Kolhapur , Sangli, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg and State of Goa.
Branch Recruiting Office,Kolhapur-416 004Tel:523809
57. BRO Aurangabad
Distts of Aurangabad , Parbhani, Nanded, Jalna, Latur , Beed, Buldana and Hingoli.
Branch Recruiting Office, T/39, Assey LinesAurangabad-431 002Tel:334406-238
58. BRO Ahmedabad
Distts of Baroda , Ahmedabad, Surat , Baroch, Bulsar, Mahsana, Sabarkantha, Panchmahals, Dangs, Banskanatha, Gandhinagar, Daman , Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT), Kheda, Valsad, Anand, Dahod, Narmada, Navsari, Paten and Godhara..
Branch Recruiting Office, Ahmedabad-380 003Tel: 2861951-67280
59. BRO Jamnagar
Distts of Rajkot , Jamnagar , Amroli, Bhavnagar , Junagarh, Bhuj, Surendranagar, Diu and Pornabdar..
Branch Recruiting OfficeJamnagar-361 008Tel: 550272-6916

60. HQ Rtg Zone Bangalore
Distts of Bangalore , Kolar, Mandya, Mysore , Tumkur, Chamaraj Nagar, Banglore Rural.
HQ Rtg Zone, 148, Field Marshal KM Kariappa Road, Bangalore-560025Tel: 55919995096264
61. BRO Mangalore
Distts of North Kannada (Karwar) Chickmanglur, Udupi, Kodagu, Shimoga, Hasan, Chitradurga, Devegigerse and South Kannada.
Branch Recruiting Office, Kulur Post, Mangalore-575 013Tel:458386
62. BRO Belgum
Distts of Belguam, Bijapur, Dharwar, Gulbarg, Raichur, Bidar , Koppal, Gadag, Haveri, Bagalkot and Bellary.
Branch Recruiting Office, Fort Belgaum ,Belgaum-590 016Tel:422517
63. BRO Trivandrum
Distts of Trivandrum , Alleppy, Ernakulam, Quilon, Kottayam Iddukki and Pathanamthitta
Branch Recruiting Office, Thirumala Post, Trivandrum-695 006Tel:342373
64. BRO Calicut
Distts of Calicut , Cannanore, Palakkad, Malapuram, Trichur, Wynad, Kesergode and UT of Mahe, Wayanad, Lakshwadweep, Wayanad and Kasargod.
Branch Recruiting Office, West Hill Barracks,Calicut-673 005Tel:383953

65. HQ Rtg Zone Chennai
Distts of Chennai, Tirvallur, Kancheepuram, Vellor. Cuddalore, Vilup Puram, tiruvannamalai, Andaman & Nicobar Gp of islands, Distt of Andaman & Nikobar.
HQ Rtg Zone, Fort Saint George, Chennai-600 009Tel:5312608
66. BRO Trichirapalli
Distts of Tiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Ramanathapuram, Tirunvelli, Pudukottai, Karur, Perambalur, Ariyalur, Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur, Sivaganga, Virudhu Nagar, Thoothukkudi, UT of Pondicheery and Distt of karaikal.
Branch Recruiting Office, Garuda Lines,Trichy-620 001 (TN)Tel:412254
67. BRO Secunderabad
Distts of Adilabad, Hyderabad , Karimnagar, Mehboobnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Warrangal, Kurnool , Ranga Reddy and Khammam.
Branch Recruiting Office, Secunderabad-500 015 (AP)Tel:7882041
68. BRO Coimbatore
Distts of Coimbatore , Perriyar, Salem , Nilgiris, Madurai , Namakkal, Theni, Dharamapuri, Erode and Dindigul. .
Branch Recruiting Office, Red Fields, Coimbatore-641 018 (TN)Tel:312022
69. BRO Guntur
Distts of Guntur , Cuddapah, Krishna, Nellore , Prakasham, Anantpur and Chittoor.
Branch Recruiting Office, Ravindra Nagar Post, Guntur-522 006 (AP)Tel:230008
70. BRO Vishakapatnam
Distts of Vishakapatnam, East and West Godawari , Srikakulam, Visainagaram , UT of Pondicherry : Distt of yanam.
Branch Recruiting Office, Old MFD Location, Near Southern Rly Wksp. Station Road, Visakhapatnam-530 014 (AP)Tel:754680

71. HQ Rtg Office Kunraghat
Anchals of Mahakali, Seti, Bheri, Rapti, Karnali, Dhaulagiri, Lumbini, Gandaki of Nepal, Narayani and Bagmati of Nepal.
Gorkha Rtg Depot, Kunraghat, Gorakhpur-273 008Tel:273035
72. BRO Ghoom
Anchals of Narayani, Begmali, Janakpur, Sagarmatha, Koshi, mechi of Nepal and Distt of Darjeeling .Nepalese NG from Anchals.
Gorkha Rtg Depot, Ghoom Darjeeling (WB)-734 102Tel:54498-6930

73. IRO Delhi Cantt
State of Delhi and Distts of Gurgaon and Faridabad of Haryana
Independent Rtg Office,Delhi Cantt-110 011Tel:5666608

The Indian Army by the end of the War was

(Abridged From The Book On The Subject Published By History Division, Ministry Of Defence, 1987 Edition)
The Constitutional Position
1. On 15 August 1947 , the independent `dominions’ of India and Pakistan were born and the Paramountcy of the British Crown over the Princely States in the sub-continent ended. The Government of India soon declared that it considered the States free only to join India or Pakistan and not to remain independent. But Mr Jinnah, speaking for Pakistan , gave it as his opinion that they were fully empowered to remain independent of both if the rulers so wished.
2. The Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir decided to postpone a decision on the problem of accession, and to have a Standstill Agreement with both India and Pakistan . An offer of a Standstill Agreement was made by the Maharaja in telegrams in identical terms to both India and Pakistan on 12 August 1947 . However, the State signed a Standstill Agreement only with Pakistan , and no agreement was executed with the Government of India prior to the State’s accession to India on 26 October 1947 . The postal and telegraph facilities in the State were placed under the control of the Pakistan Government, which promised to continue the existing arrangements by which the State imported wheat, cloth, ammunition, kerosene oil and petrol from West Punjab .
Trouble in J&K
3. Very soon however, these amicable relations deteriorated. August saw a hideous wave of communal rioting in the whole of the Punjab . Thousands of Hindus and Sikhs were butchered in West Punjab and the North West Frontier Province and their women abducted; thousands of Muslims suffered the same fate in East Punjab . Millions of refugees poured out from both, travelling in huge columns. The State of Jammu and Kashmir at first remained a heaven for the victims for either side. The people of the State irrespective of religion, maintained their traditional harmony and stuck to the idea of communal brotherhood. The State in fact became a corridor for the passage of Muslim refugees westward and the Hindu and Sikh refugees eastward. But, these refugees did not fail to excite their co- religionists in the State by the stories of their sufferings, and even tried to wreak their vengeance within the State on the co-religionists of those who had wronged them.
4. Units of the State’s army, commanded by Major –General Scott, tried their best to prevent the communal fracas and to punish those responsible for them. But when they took action against some Muslim trouble-makers in the Punch area, newspapers and leaders of the Muslim League in West Punjab declared that the Maharaja’s Dogra troops were murdering and terrorising the innocent Muslims of the state. On 29 August, the Maharaja of Kashmir received a telegram from one Raja Yakub Khan on behalf of the people of Hazara, alleging attacks on Muslims in Punch and threatening : “We are ready to enter the State fully equipped to fight with your forces. You are requested to ease the situation soon, otherwise be ready to bear the consequences.” About the beginning of September, raids began to take place from Pakistan into the border area of the State. On 03 September, a band of raiders, several hundred strong, attacked the village of Kotha, 27 km south-east of Jammu , and when chased by troops of State army, fled back into Pakistan . At the same time, another band of 500 raiders armed with service rifles of .303 calibre attacked some Hindu refugees and the State petrol reservoir at Chak Haria, 10 km south of Samba. On 4 September, General Scott wired to the State Government at Srinagar, “Reliable reports state that on the 2nd and 3rd September, 1947, a band of upto 400 armed Sattis- Muslim residents mainly in Kahuta Tehsil of Rawalpindi district were infiltrating into the State over the river Jhelum from Pakistan in the area of Owen, eleven miles (18 km) east of kahuta. Their purpose is looting and attacking minority communities in the State”. The Prime Minister of the State sent a telegram the same day to the Chief Minister of West Punjab and Deputy Commissioner of Rawalpindi , informing them of these raids and requesting measures to prevent the infiltration of raiders. The Deputy Commissioner of Rawalpindi replied denying the facts. The raids continued, with Pak army patrols intruding into the State on 6 September and 13 September. On 17 September, a band of 400 armed raiders was met about 19 km south-east of Ranbirsinghpura and retreated into Pakistan after exchanging fire with the State’s armed police. On 22 September, further raids were reported from a place 10 km south-east of Samba. In the area of Punch also, trouble continued, and the State forces were compelled to deal with it with a heavy hand. The cry then went up that the Maharaja was trying to preserve his despotism by ruthlessly putting down the movement of democratic freedom among his subjects.
5. Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of the National Conference, which was the biggest political party, was opposed to communalism, and his influence over the masses was undisputed. So, to help in curbing the wave of communal fury, Sheikh Abdullah was released from prison on 29 September 1947 . But instead of improving, the situation took a turn for the worse. On 4 October, an aeroplane was seen flying back and forth between Kohala and Palandri, obviously engaged in military reconnaissance of the area. The same day about 400 raiders armed with tommy guns and bombs surrounded Chirala. Feverish movement of uniformed men carried in mechanical transport was noticed across the Pakistan border. Concentrations of tribal warriors were reported from Abbotabad. The raiders were now giving battle to the small contingents of the State Force near Chirala and Bagh in Rawalkot area. On 10 October, more raids took place in the Jammu area and during night of 11 / 12 October armed raiders crossed the river Jhelum from Hazara and entered Punch area. The raiders were not only better armed now, but were frequently assisted by batches of men in Pakistan Army’s uniform. Light machine guns and communication by wireless had begun to appear in the raider bands, while their probes over a wide arc of the frontier succeeded in splitting up the State Force into penny-packets strung out all along the border. The State’s army was being gradually immobilised, and its capacity for coherent strategic action destroyed. The stage was being set for the open invasion of Jammu and Kashmir from Pakistan .
6. The invasion of Kashmir was meticulously planned, carefully timed and executed. An effective economic blockade, orchestrated communal disharmony and preliminary operations set the stage for the launch of ‘Operation Gulmarg’. Pakistani raiders attacked small garrisons of the state forces in the beginning of October. The attacks over a wide area succeeded in splitting the state forces into penny packets. The state army was being gradually immobilized and its capacity for a coherent strategic action destroyed. The situation deteriorated rapidly. The stage was thus set for the entry of raiders into the valley, and execution of the final phase of the plan, i.e capture of Srinagar . This phase commenced in the last week of October, which left the Maharaja with no choice other than to accede with India to get the aid of India .
J&K State Force
7. The military set up in J&K comprised of a Army HQ at Srinagar and four brigades. The Army HQ was headed by Brigadier Rajendra Singh, Chief of Staff of the J&K State Force. The four brigades were the Jammu Brigade, the Kashmir Brigade, the Mirpur Brigade and the Punch Brigade. These four brigades, between them had only eight infantry battalions. The State Force had no artillery or armour. This small force was charged with the responsibility of looking after the 500 kilometer long mountainous border from Gilgit to Suchetgarh. Troops were stretched all along this border in occupying posts in varying strengths.
The Raiders
8. Initially, approximately 2000 raiders entered Jammu and Kashmir from September to October 1947. Gradually their numbers increased further to about 4000 as mutinous soldiers from State forces, some ex servicemen from the Pakistan Army and local Muslim volunteers joined them. While they were natural warriors and had been brought up fighting the British in the harsh frontier terrain, they were not trained in the methods of a regular army. They fought as individuals, hardly took orders from anyone and fought in their own groups and clans. They were good guerrilla fighters but could neither attack prepared defences nor withstand organised attacks supported by air and arty.
9. The tribesmen came to Kashmir partially to avenge the purported massacre of Kashmiri Muslims but mostly for loot and plunder. They moved in old lorries and trucks which were loaded with the loot. They did not leave their lorries and were thus confined to the roads.
Operation GULMARG
10. By the middle of October, the economic blockade had stifled the State’s economy and paralysed its administration. Civil strife and turmoil were effectively engineered in the South and South-Western borders of the State by instigating the Muslim population inhabiting these areas. Armed raids engineered on the State forces garrisons had effectively neutralized their military capabilities and had also succeeded in drawing the reserves, located in Srinagar , away from the valley.
11. The main attack was planned and launched by the Army Headquarters of Pakistan and was called ‘Operation Gulmarg’. Orders were personally signed by the British C-in-C of the Pakistan Army, within a few days of Pakistan ’s coming into existence. The main forces consisted of tribals from North West Frontier and were organized into units of about 1,000 each, called Lashkar, under the command of their respective Chiefs, called Maliks. Pakistan Army personnel too joined these tribals. Each Lashkar was provided with an army Major, a Captain and ten JCOs. The entire force was to be commanded by Major General Akbar Khan, who was given the code name ‘Tariq’. The plan envisaged six Lashkars to advance along the main road from Muzaffarabad to Srinagar via Domel, Uri and Baramula. Two Lashkars each were to make subsidiary moves from Hajipir Pass to Gulmarg and Tithwal to Handwara, Sopore and Bandipur, with the twin objectives of securing large chunks of territory, as also to protect the flanks of the main column. The D-day for Operation Gulmarg was fixed as 22 October 1947 . 7 Infantry Division of Pakistan Army which was to concentrate in Murree-Abbotabad by 21 October 1947 was ordered to be ready to move into J&K territory to back up the Lashkars and consolidate their hold on the valley.
12. On 22 October 1947 , Domel was captured. The next morning, the enemy in large numbers swarmed Uri. Having withstood the attack for the whole day and seeing the enemy by-passing Uri, the next defensive position was taken at Mahura by late night. The raiders entered Baramula on the night of 25 October 1947 .
13. With the acceptance of the signed Instrument of Accession by the Governor General, during the night of 26th October, 1947 , the State of Jammu and Kashmir became an integral part of India .
Operations - Kashmir Valley Sector
14. The immediate task was to throw the invaders back. The first batch of Indian troops landed at Srinagar on 27th October, 1947 with Dakotas touching down at Srinagar airfield. In Phase I, 1 SIKH landed at Srinagar airfield and secured it. It established a blocking position East of Baramulla, which had to be pulled nearer to Srinagar once the tribals began to outflank it. HQ 161 Infantry Brigade with 1 KUMAON was airlifted on 29 October. By end of October, 4 KUMAON, 1 MAHAR and 6 RAJRIF were also in Kashmir . Soon a squadron of 7 CAVALARY was moved from Jammu to Srinagar . The battle at Badgam on 03 November and Shalateng on 07 November routed the raiders from the valley and the Indian Forces, now under the J&K Division, moved forward mopping up the areas upto Rampur by 11 November 1947 and capturing Uri by 13 November 1947 .
Operations - Jammu Sector
15. By 15 October, raiders had penetrated into Punch and Mirpur. The Indian Army concentrated on the priority task of saving the Valley. 50 Para Brigade was moved to Jammu via Pathankot to secure lines of communication to Jammu . Having been hopelessly outnumbered and run out of supplies, Bhimber fell on 28 October, Mendhar on 07 November and Rajauri, Rawalakot, Bagh by 11 November. Mirpur, Kotli, Jhangar, Naushera and Punch, although besieged, held on. 50 Para Brigade advanced from Jammu and relieved Jhangar and Kotli by 26 November. Mirpur however could not be relieved and own forces decided not to hold Kotli and fell back to Jhangar. Having secured Naushera and Uri, operations for relief of Punch could be undertaken. The effort from Uri was unsuccessful since own troops blew up the bridge at Kahuta, suspecting the relief column to be the enemy. Punch was supplied by air and had to hold on. Punch had 2000 State Forces troops and a company of 1 KUMAON under Brigadier Pritam Singh, Commander of the Punch Brigade. He constructed an airstrip for air landing of supplies and the Air Force continued to supply the garrison and evacuate casualties. The enemy continued in its attempts to cut off Indian lines of communications from Jammu . 80 Infantry Brigade undertook operations and secured Chhamb while 268 Infantry Brigade was responsible for securing the Jammu – Naushera axis and 50 Para Brigade operated further West and North. The most unfortunate development was the loss of Jhangar on 24 December.
16. An appraisal of the extent of operational advance made by the Indian Army till the end of December 1947 indicates that the valley was cleared of hostiles beyond Uri, and in Jammu division, relief operations were carried out effectively in Nowshera and Kotli. Chhamb was cleared of hostiles and the Air Force ferried arms, ammunitions and supplies to enable the Punch garrison to continue their holding operation. On the debit side was the failure to secure the relief of Mirpur which fell into enemy hands on 25 November, and was put to flames on 26 November, the day Indian troops reached Kotli. Jhangar having been recovered was lost again on 24 December, thus posing a threat to Nowshera and jeopardizing all operations to the north towards Rajouri and Punch. By the year end, the level of force build up in J&K had reached three brigades in Jammu area - 50 Parachute Brigade, 268 and 80 Infantry Brigades; while in the valley only 161 Infantry Brigade was operating.
17. In the month of January 1948, the enemy threatened the main line of communication near Samba-Jasmergarh area in Jammu-Kathua sector. Little later, in the first week of February, information was received that a large force of hostiles had infiltrated into the Kupwara sector and had occupied the Tregham valley, thereby threatening Handwara and Sopore towns. These developments necessitated induction of more troops into J&K. 77 Parachute Brigade was brought to Jasmergarh and 19 Infantry Brigade to Nowshera. 163 Infantry Brigade, was raised in the second week of February and stationed at Srinagar to take charge of operations in Handwara-Bandipur-Skardu-Leh areas. On 18 March, Jhangar was recaptured, this time for good. Rajouri was liberated on 13 April. With these two tactically important objectives in hand, Indian efforts to link up with and relieve the Punch garrison received fresh impetus.
18. By now almost eight brigades of Indian forces were operating in J&K. Keeping in view the quantum of troops, the vastness of the area of operations and also the fact that, during summer months, operational activities would substantially intensify requiring the personal supervision and closer command and control of the Divisional Commander, the command structure in J&K was reorganised in the beginning of May 1948. The Srinagar Div under Major General Thimaya now had 161 and 163 Infantry Brigades as also 77 Parachute Brigade, with supporting arms and ancillary units. Soon after his arrival General Thimaya planned a two-brigade offensive for the capture of Domel on 20th May 1948 .
19. Pakistani preparations for the summer campaign came in the form of continued personnel and material back up to the hostiles and irregular forces as well as induction of two infantry divisions in J&K. These two divisions comprised five brigades, besides thousands of ‘Azad Kashmir’ troops, fully equipped and trained by Pakistan .
20. With the two forces thus arrayed against each other, Indian Army’s summer offensive in the Valley opened on 18 May 1948 . The attack was launched simultaneously from Dragmula and Handwara, overcame considerable enemy resistance and captured Chowkibal on 20 May. Troops moved further on over the 10,000 ft Nastachun Pass and secured Tithwal on 23 May. As compared to the impressive results achieved by this force, the efforts to capture Domel floundered after achieving some initial success. By the middle of June, a stalemate had set in. Indian gains in Uri sector were limited to capturing important positions of Chhota Kazinag, Pandu, Pir Kanthi and Ledi Gali. However, in a major upset Pandu was again occupied by Pakistani forces on 23 July 1948 . Thus ended India ’s summer offensive, without achieving its aim of capturing Domel which once again eluded the Indians.
21. The situation prevailing in the valley at this time was to continue, with minor changes, till the end of the conflict. In Jammu area also, except for the capture of Mendhar and link up with Punch in November 1948, nothing else of significance was to take place till the declaration of cease-fire on 01 January 1949 .
Northern Sector thus rated as among the best in the world whose Officers and men displayed the highest levels of motivation and gallantry on the field of battle.


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